繁体中文
设为首页
加入收藏
 | 网站首页 | 军事动态 | 原创专稿 | 武器装备 | 知识资料 | 文摘 | 论坛精选 | 环球信息 | 
您现在的位置: 环球展望军事 >> 原创专稿 >> 中国军事 >> 中国海军 >> 正文 用户登录 新用户注册
中国092型(夏级)核动力导弹潜艇
Type 092 (Xia Class) Nuclear-Powered Missile Submarine
作者:环球展望军事网编译 来源:今日中国防务 更新时间:2009-4-22 【字体:

    中国092型(北约代号:夏级)是中国最早的核动力弹道导弹潜艇。从091型(汉级)攻击核潜艇基础上发展具有延长的艇体,092型携带十二枚2,500公里-射程单-弹头巨浪(JuLang) 1(北约报告命名:CSS-N-3)潜射弹道导弹(SLBM)。潜艇是中国建立海-建核力量的第一个步骤,能提供国家拥有宝贵的‘第二次打击’能力。由于第一艘潜艇上未解决的技术上问题没有接着建造潜艇。 现在PLA海军正在发展新一代094型(晋级)对092型来说如同一位继承者。

    计划

    当中国核动力攻击潜艇计划在1960年后期内进入了全尺寸发展,核动力弹道导弹潜艇计划也产生进步。在1967年6月,PLA海军开始了二阶段计划发展核动力弹道导弹潜艇。计划的第一阶段打算基于091型核动力攻击潜艇设计建造一艘导弹潜艇。在第一艘潜艇的成功之上,在第二阶段一种更有能力的潜艇具有更好性能将会被发展。第一种导弹潜艇命名为092型。

    从1970年9月开始第一艘导弹潜艇在辽宁省的葫芦岛造船厂建造。潜艇具有091型攻击潜艇相同的艇体设计,但是延长艇体去容纳导弹舱。

    092型潜艇仅仅重新发展15%项目。发展计划中最复杂的困难是水下导弹发射机制,由武汉建立的713所设计和发展。天津-建立的707所负责潜艇的导航系统发展(初始、星形和卫星)。

    巨大技术上的复杂和困难的结果,从1970年早期开始之后092型计划已经有事故隐患。第一艘潜艇的建造严重地被某些原因延迟了。开始建造十年之后,潜艇直到1981年之前没有下水。正式地潜艇在1983年8月进入PLA海军服役,但是JL-1 SLBM的测试发射直到1987年9月没有成功。甚至在潜艇实现完全操作之后仍有事故隐患应归于它的设计缺陷。

    在第一艘下水后没有增加的单位并仅仅只建造长征(ChangZheng)6(弦号406)。潜艇自从1980年中期以后曾经立基于青岛海军基地。它的操作已经被限制,而且潜艇从未航行超过中国地域的水域。潜艇在1995年至2001年之间接受主要的现代化改装配备有新改良的JL-1A潜射弹道导弹(SLBM)。

    仅仅单独的一艘092型导弹潜艇,它不可能为PLA建立有效的水下核打击能力,需要不少于三艘潜艇保证至少它们之一准备好随时发射。然而,092型计划在设计和核动力导弹潜艇的建造上提供无价的知识和经验给PLA,无疑在第二代094型核动力导弹潜艇建造上使用。

    092型导弹潜艇携带十二枚巨浪(JuLang)三-级、固体-推进、潜射弹道导弹。每枚导弹携带单一的25~50 kT核弹头。二排导弹发射管位于帆罩之后隆起甲板下面。基本型JL-1具有600米的精度(CEP)最大射程2,150公里,改进的JL-1A可能增加精度和最大射程2,500公里。

    导弹第一次成功的陆地测试在1981年进行,从一艘高尔夫级潜艇成功的第一次导弹水下发射在1982年10月进行。从092型潜艇成功的第一次水下发射在1987年9月15日进行。

    潜艇有六具533毫米艇艏鱼雷管,携带总数为12枚Yu-3(SET-65E)鱼雷(主动/被动导引以40节速度射程15公里;弹头205公斤)。潜艇配备有多用途战斗数据和指挥系统提供信息给潜艇控制和鱼雷发射,一套火-控系统用于潜射弹道导弹(SLBM)引导和发射。

    像091型,092型由核、涡轮-电动配置提供动力,包括一组额定功率90 兆瓦的压水反应堆(PWR)组成,采用单轴。

    潜艇目录

编号(No.)
命名(Name)
舰队(Fleet)
下水(Launch)
初始作战能力(IOC)

 型号

406 长征(ChangZheng) 6 渤海 北海舰队(North Sea) 1981年8月 1983年8月 夏级

    规格

    组员: 140 名
    全长: 120 米
    艇宽: 10 米
    吃水线: 8 米
    排水量: (升至水面)N/A;(水下)6,500 吨
    航速: (水下)22 节
    导弹: 12 X JL-1 SLBM
    鱼雷: 6 X 533 毫米 艇艏,20枚;Yu-3,主动/被动引导 速度40 节 射程15 公里
    雷达: 水面搜寻,I-波段
    电子对策: 921A型雷达告警
    声纳: 壳装,主动/被动搜索和攻击,中频
    配置: 核,1 X 压水反应堆(PWR),涡轮-电动,90 兆瓦
    推进: 单轴

    最后更新: 2009年2月23日

    附原文供对照参考:

Type 092 (Xia Class) Nuclear-Powered Missile Submarine

The Type 092 (NATO codename: Xia class) is China's first nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine. Developed from the Type 091 (Han class) attack nuclear submarine with a stretched hull, the Type 092 carries twelve 2,500km-range single-warhead JuLang 1 (NATO reporting name: CSS-N-3) submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBM). The submarine is China’s first step to build a sea-based nuclear force, which can provide the country with the valuable ‘second strike’ capability. No further hull was built due to unsolved technical problems with the first boat. Currently the PLA navy is developing a new-generation Type 094 (Jin class) as a successor to the Type 092.

Programme

As China’s nuclear-powered attack submarine programme entered full-scale development in the late 1960s, the nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine programme was also given go-ahead. In June 1967, the PLA Navy initiated a two-phase programme to develop the nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine. The first phase of the programme aimed to build a missile submarine based on the design of the Type 091 nuclear-powered attack submarine. Upon the success of the first submarine, in the second phase a more capable submarine with better performance would be developed. The first missile submarine was given the designation Type 092.

Construction of the first missile submarine began in September 1970 at Huludao Shipyard in Liaoning Province. The submarine shares the same hull design as the Type 091 attack submarine, but with a stretched hull to accommodate the missile compartment. Only 15% of the contents onboard the Type 092 submarine was newly developed. The most complex difficulty in the development programme was the underwater missile launch mechanism, which was designed and developed by Wuhan-based 713 Institute. Tianjin-based 707 Institute was responsible for the development of the submarine’s navigation systems (initial, stellar and satellite).

As a result of its tremendous technical complexity and difficulty, the Type 092 project has been trouble-prone since it started in the early 1970s. The construction of the first submarine was seriously delayed by the political impact if the ‘Culture Revolution’. The submarine was not launched until early 1981, ten years after the construction began. Officially the submarine entered the PLA Navy service in August 1983, but the test fire of the JL-1 SLBM did not succeed until September 1987. Even after it became fully operational the submarine was still reported to be trouble-prone due to its flawed design.

No additional unit has ever been built after the launch of the first and only hull ChangZheng 6 (pennant number 406). The submarine has been based at Qingdao Naval Base since the mid-1980s. Its operations has been limited and the boat has never sailed beyond China’s regional waters. The submarine received a major modernisation refit between 1995 and 2001 to be fitted with the new improved JL-1A SLBM.

With only a single Type 092 missile submarine, it is not possible for the PLA to establish an effective underwater nuclear strike capability, which requires no less than three submarines to guarantee that at least one of them is ready to launch at any time. Nevertheless, the Type 092 programme provided the PLA with invaluable knowledge and experience in the design and construction of the nuclear-powered missile submarine, which has certainly been used on the construction of the second-generation Type 094 nuclear-powered missile submarine.

The Type 092 missile submarine carries twelve JuLang 1 two-stage, solid-propellant, submarine-launched ballistic missiles. Each missile carries a single 25~50kT nuclear warhead. The two rows of missile launch tubes are situated behind the sail under the raised deck. The basic variant JL-1 has a maximum range of 2,150km with accuracy (CEP) of 600m; the improved JL-1A may have a maximum range of 2,500km with increased accuracy.

The first successful land test of the missile took place in 1981, and first successful underwater launch of the missile from a Golf class submarine took place in October 1982. The first successful underwater launch of the missile from the Type 092 submarine took place on 15 September 1987.

The submarine has six 533mm bow torpedo tubes, and carries a total of 12 Yu-3 (SET-65E) torpedoes (active/passive homing to 15km at 40kt; warhead 205kg). The submarine is fitted with a multi-purpose combat data and command system which provides information for submarine control and torpedo firing, and a fire-control system for SLBM aiming and firing.

Like the Type 091, the Type 092 is powered by a nuclear, turbo-electric arrangement, consisting of one pressurised water reactor (PWR) rated at 90MW, with one shaft.

Shiplist

No. Name Shipyard Fleet Launch IOC Type
406 ChangZheng 6 Bohai North Sea 1981 August 83 Type 092 Xia Class

Specifications

Crew: 140
Length: 120m
Beam: 10m
Draft: 8m
Displacement: (Surfaced) N/A; (Dived)6,500 tonnes
Speed: (Dived) 22 knots
Missile: 12 X JL-1 SLBM
Torpedoes: 6 X 533mm bow tubes, 20 weapons; Yu-3, active/passive homing to 15km at 40kt
Radar: Surface search, I-band
Electronic countermeasures: Type 921A radar warning
Sonar: Hull-mounted, active/passive search and attack, medium frequency
Arrangement: Nuclear, 1 X pressurised water reactor (PWR), turbo-electric, 90MW
Propulsion: One shaft

Last update: 23 February 2009

文章录入:军闻    责任编辑:《环球展望》 
  • 上一篇文章:

  • 下一篇文章:
  • 发表评论】【加入收藏】【告诉好友】【打印此文】【关闭窗口
    中国094型(晋级)核动力导弹潜艇
    中国091型(汉级)核动力攻击潜艇
    (只显示最新5条。评论内容只代表网友观点,与本站立场无关!)
    | 设为首页 | 加入收藏 | 联系站长 | 友情链接 | 版权申明 | 管理登录 |