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中国091型(汉级)核动力攻击潜艇
Type 091 (Han Class) Nuclear-Powered Attack Submarine
作者:环球展望军事网编译 来源:今日中国防务 更新时间:2009-4-21 【字体:

    中国人民解放军(PLA)海军操作的五艘091型(北约代号:汉级)核动力攻击潜艇在1967年至1990年之间由辽宁省的葫芦岛造船厂建造。第一艘(401)可能已经接近它的有效寿并可能不再操作。四艘(402、403、404和405)新建造的在1980年/90年接受现代化改装并且目前位于青岛的PLA海军北海舰队部署。

    计划

    中国在1958年6月开始了它的雄心勃勃的核动力潜艇计划,在之前中国可以独立建造常规柴电潜艇。没有任何的外部协助,核潜艇计划遇到了巨大的技术上和财政困难并且暂时在1963年中止。在1965年国家领导人决定首先为研究和模拟目的建造一个陆基核反应炉重新开始计划。PLA海军也起草了二阶段核潜艇发展计划,第一阶段打算发展一艘核动力攻击潜艇,并在它的成功之上在第二阶段发展一艘核动力导弹潜艇。

    由顶尖原子科学家和资深的政府官员在1969年组成的一个队伍领导核潜艇计划。多种的关联设备在1960年后期之前被完成,包括在四川省绵阳的陆基核反应炉;辽宁省葫芦岛的核潜艇造船厂;还有在东海海岸用于水雷、声纳和潜射弹道导弹的试验场。第一艘091型核动力攻击潜艇长征(ChangZheng) 1(弦号 401号)在1968年开始建造。陆基核反应炉在1970年实现完全运行并准备好在潜艇上安装。

    第一艘核潜艇401号在1970年12月下水并且它的核反应炉在1971年7月运转。潜水艇海试在1971年8月开始并且潜艇在1974年8月进入PLA海军服役。

    然而,它花费中国潜艇工程师另外的十年去解决潜艇设计上的设计缺陷。在1980年中期之前潜艇由于缺乏相配的水雷和它的火-控系统没有操作。未经证实的报告称在1980年中期法国在潜艇火-控、声纳和核反应炉技术中提供一些协助给中国去改进091型。

    在第一艘401号成功下水之后,接着四艘(402~405)在1977年和1990年之间建造。所有的五艘被北海舰队部署在青岛附近山洞中的专用核潜艇设施内。

    最初二艘(401,402)在1980年后期改装,并在1990年返回服役。他们最后在2000/01年退役,403和404在1998年开始改装并在2000年返回服役。091型的操作表现被认为次于同时期的美国或俄国设计,尤其是安静、武器系统和传感器。这可能已经随着潜艇在1990年后期中的现代化改装中被改进,看到潜艇表面覆盖消声瓦减少声学特征,引进更先进的线导反潜鱼雷和也可能有潜射YJ-8反舰导弹。

    设计

    091型核动力攻击潜水艇的结构采用水滴形双层外壳结构。潜水艇采用单轴四尾舵。艇体有七个水密舱,帆罩位于第二舱室上面。一对前舵位于在帆罩的中部。许多的可缩回桅杆装在帆罩内包括潜望镜、雷达天线、无线电、卫星通信和导航。简氏海军认为从403开始潜艇的外壳已经从帆罩之后被延长8米,但是这不能够确认。

    许多年以来推测091型攻击潜艇的最后三艘(403、404和405)的艇体已经在帆罩后增长8米去装备YJ-82潜射型反舰导弹和它关联的火-控系统。

    虽然这从未被证实,这么做对PLA海军是没有困难的因为导弹已经成功地与039型(宋级)柴电潜艇一起整合。

    YJ-82导弹能从潜艇的533毫米鱼雷管发射。导弹使用主动雷达引导和动力由一台固体火箭发动机(使用一台固体火箭助推器)提供。反舰导弹射程42~80公里并且接近目标时以0.9马赫的速度以掠海模式攻击。165公斤成形装药弹头采用碰撞延时引信。

    潜艇有六个533毫米鱼雷管,包括Yu-3(SET-65 E)(以40节速度 主动/被动导引 射程15公里;战斗部205 kg)和Yu-1(53-51型)(以39节速度 非制导 射程9.2公里 或 以51节速度 非制导 射程3.7公里;战斗部400公斤)。携带鱼雷总数为20枚。二者择一地潜艇能在它的鱼管中携带36枚水雷。

    091型攻击潜艇配备有多用途战斗数据和指挥系统提供信息用于潜艇攻击控制和水雷(和导弹?)发射。潜艇有I-波段表面搜寻雷达(北约代号:Snoop Tray),而且为主动/被动搜索和攻击配备有Trout CheeK中频声纳;和一套DUUX-5低频声纳用于被动测距和截收。对策系统包括921-A型雷达告警接收器和定向仪。

    潜艇动力由核,涡轮-电动的配置提供动力,包括一组额定90兆瓦压水反应堆(PWR),采用单轴驱动。

    潜艇目录

编号(No.)
命名(Name)
舰队(Fleet)
下水(Launch)
初始作战能力(IOC)

 注解

401 长征(ChangZheng) 1 渤海 北海舰队(North Sea) 1970年12月26日 1974年8月1日 2000年退役
402 长征(ChangZheng) 2 渤海 北海舰队(North Sea) 1977年12月20日 1980年12月30日 2001年退役
403 长征(ChangZheng) 3 渤海 北海舰队(North Sea) 1983年12月31日 1984年12月25日  
404 长征(ChangZheng) 4 渤海 北海舰队(North Sea) 1985年12月26日 1987年12月27日  
405 长征(ChangZheng) 5 渤海 北海舰队(North Sea) 1990年4月 1990年12月  

    规格

    组员: 75 名
    艇长: 106 米
    艇宽: 10 米
    吃水线: 7.4 米
    排水量: (升至水面)4,500 吨;(潜水)5,500 吨
    航速: (升至水面)12 节;(潜水)25 节
    反舰导弹: YJ-8(C-801);惯性巡航+以0.9 马赫速度 战斗部165 公斤 射程40 公里,掠海模式
    鱼雷: 6 X 533 毫米艏管,20枚;Yu-3,主动/被动导引 以40节 射程15 公里
    水雷: 36枚 代替鱼雷装在鱼雷管内
    雷达: 表面搜索,I-波段
    电子对策: 921A型 雷达告警
    声纳: 壳装,主动/被动搜索和攻击,中频 DUUX-5:被动测距和截收
    配置: 核,1 X 压水反应堆(PWR),涡轮-电动,90 兆瓦
    推进: 单轴

    最后更新:2009年2月23日

    附原文供对照参考:

Type 091 (Han Class) Nuclear-Powered Attack Submarine

The PLA Navy operates five Type 091 (NATO codename: Han class) nuclear-powered attack submarines built by Huludao Shipyard in Liaoning Province between 1967 and 1990. The first boat (401) may have approached its service life and may no longer be operational. The four newer boats (402, 403, 404, and 405) received the modernisation refit in the 1980s/90s and are currently deployed by the PLA Navy North Sea Fleet based at Qingdao.

Programme

China first initiated its ambitious nuclear-powered submarine programme in June 1958, long before the country could even build the conventional diesel-electric submarine independently. Without any external assistance, the nuclear submarine programme encountered enormous technical and financial difficulties and was temporarily suspended in 1963. By 1965 the country’s leaders decided to resume the programme by firstly building a land-based nuclear reactor for research and simulation purposes. The PLA Navy also drafted a two-phase nuclear submarine development plan, with the first phase aiming to develop a nuclear-powered attack submarine, and upon its success to develop a nuclear-powered missile submarine in the second phase.

A team consisting of top atomic scientists and senior government officials was formed in 1969 to head the nuclear submarine programme. A range of associated facilities were completed by the late 1960s, including the land-based nuclear reactor in Mianyang, Sichuan Province; nuclear submarine shipyard in Huludao, Liaoning Province; and the test ranges for torpedo, sonar, and submarine-launched ballistic missile in the east coast. Construction of the first Type 091 nuclear-powered attack submarine ChangZheng 1 (pennant number 401) began in 1968. The land-based nuclear reactor became fully operational in 1970 and was ready to be fitted on the submarine.

The first nuclear submarine 401 was launched in December 1970 and its nuclear reactor was activated in July 1971. The sea trial of the submarine began in August 1971 and the submarine entered the PLA Navy Service in August 1974. However, it took the Chinese submarine engineers another decade to crack design flaws in the submarine’s design. Before the mid-1980s the submarine was not operational due to the lack of a suitable torpedo and its associated fire-control system. Unconfirmed reports also suggested that France provided China with some assistance in submarine fire-control, sonar and nuclear reactor technologies in the mid-1980s to improve the Type 091.

Following the success launch of the first boat 401, a further four boats (402~405) were built between 1977 and 1990. All five boats are deployed by the North Sea Fleet and are based at a special nuclear submarine facility in mountain caves near Qingdao. The first two boats (401, 402) were refitted in the late 1980s, and back in service in the mid-1990s. They were finally retired from active service in 2000/01. 403 and 404 boat started mid-life refits in 1998 and were back in service in 2000.

The operational performance of the Type 091 was regarded as inferior to that of the contemporary U.S. or Russian designs, especially in terms of quietness, weapon systems, and sensors. This may have been improved following the modernisation refits of the submarine in the late 1990s, which saw the surface of the submarine being covered with acoustic tiles to reduce the acoustic signature, and the introduction of the more advanced wire-guided anti-submarine torpedo and possibly submarine-launched YJ-8 anti-ship missile too.

Design

The Type 091 nuclear-powered attack submarine utilises a water-drop shape with a double-hulled configuration. The submarine has four stern rudder with a single large shaft. The hull has seven watertight compartments, with the sail located above the second compartment. A pair of foreplanes are positioned in the middle of the sail. A number of retractable masts are carried inside the sail including periscopes, radar antennas, radio and satellite communications, and navigation masts. Jane’s Navy suggested that from 403 onwards the hull of the submarine has been extended by 8m aft the sail, but this cannot be confirmed.

For many years it was speculated that the last three boats of the Type 091 attack submarine (403, 404, and 405) have their hulls stretched by 8m after the sail to be fitted with the submarine-launched version of the YJ-82 anti-ship missile and its associated fire-control system. While this was never confirmed, there is no difficulty for the PLA Navy to do so since the missile has already been successfully integrated with the Type 039 (Song class) diesel-electric submarine.

The YJ-82 missile can be launched from the submarine’s 533mm torpedo tubes. The missile uses active radar homing and is powered by a solid rocket engine (with a solid rocket booster). The anti-ship missile has a range of 42~80km and approaches the target in sea skimming mode at a speed of 0.9 Mach. The 165kg shaped charge warhead has time delayed impact proximity fuses.

The submarine has six 533mm torpedo tubes, and carries a total of 20 torpedoes including Yu-3 (SET-65E)(active/passive homing to 15km at 40kt; warhead 205kg) and Yu-1 (Type 53-51)(unguided to 9.2km at 39kt or 3.7km at 51kt; warhead 400 kg). Alternatively the submarine can carry 36 mines in its tubes.

The Type 091 attack submarine is fitted with a multi-purpose combat data and command system which provides information for submarine control and torpedo (and missile?) firing. The submarine has an I-band surface search radar (NATO code-name: Snoop Tray), and is fitted with Trout Cheek bow-mounted, medium-frequency sonar for active/passive search and attack; and a DUUX-5 low frequency sonar for passive ranging and intercept. Countermeasures include a Type 921-A radar warning receiver and direction-finder.

The submarine is powered by a nuclear, turbo-electric arrangement, consisting of one pressurised water reactor (PWR) rated at 90MW, with one shaft.

Shiplist

No. Name Shipyard Fleet Launch IOC Note
401 ChangZheng 1 Bohai North Sea 26 Dec 70 1 Aug 74 Decommissioned in 2000
402 ChangZheng 2 Bohai North Sea 20 Dec 77 30 Dec 80 Decommissioned in 2001?
403 ChangZheng 3 Bohai North Sea 31 Oct 83 25 Dec 84  
404 ChangZheng 4 Bohai North Sea 26 Dec 85 27 Dec 87  
405 ChangZheng 5 Bohai North Sea Apr 90 Dec 90  

Specifications

Crew: 75
Length: 106m
Beam: 10m
Draft: 7.4m
Displacement: (Surfaced) 4,500t; (Dived) 5,500 tonnes
Speed: (Surfaced) 12kt; (Dived) 25kt
Anti-ship missile: YJ-8 (C-801); inertial cruise + active radar homing to 40km at Mach 0.9 warhead 165kg, sea-skimming
Torpedoes: 6 X 533mm bow tubes, 20 weapons; Yu-3, active/passive homing to 15km at 40kt
Mines: 36 in lieu of torpedoes
Radar: Surface search, I-band
Electronic countermeasures: Type 921A radar warning
Sonar: Hull-mounted, active/passive search and attack, medium frequency DUUX-5: passive ranging and interception
Arrangement: Nuclear, 1 X pressurised water reactor (PWR), turbo-electric, 90MW
Propulsion: One shaft

Last update: 23 February 2009

文章录入:军闻    责任编辑:《环球展望》 
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