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外媒:中国特种部队
ARMY SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES
作者:环球展望军事网编译 来源:今日中国防务 更新时间:2005-12-6 【字体:


战斗训练的SOF士兵。现在PLA SOF似乎把重心集中在特种侦察(SR)和直接作战(DA)任务。(SOF soldiers in combat training. Currently the PLA SOF appear to be focused on special reconnaissance (SR) and direct action direct action (DA) missions.)

    PLA七大军区各自有一个特种部队(SOF)大队(“DaDui”),每个规模和陆军团相当拥有约1,000人,他们是在军区总部的直接指挥之下。集团军(GA),野战师和团也有他们自己建制的特种侦察单位,拥有有限的特种战斗能力。陆军特种部队(SOF)是PLA的快速反应力量的一个重要部分,准备在高科技条件下一个有限的地区战争中去作战。

    历史记录

    虽然PLA直到1980年后期没有专门的SOF,特种训练侦察单位广泛地用来进行一些特种军事行动任务,如突袭、埋伏、情报搜集和敌方人员捕获。这些侦察单位被看到一些给人深刻印象的作用,是在1979年中国-越南战争和其后在1980年和越南边境冲突中。然而,这些单位在装备条件和组织结构和PLA普通地面部队没有太多的差异, 无法和现代化的国外SOF相对比。

    当中国军队正在从“人民战争”到“在高科技条件下局部战争”改变的时候,PLA在1980年中期首先对现代的特种战斗感兴趣。PLA计划者相信下一代战争会是在外围的短时间、快速战争,并非中国领土上的一个全面战争,而且传统的步兵地面力量在他们的质量上不能长久的符合需求。额外地,PLA也从1979年和1980年与越南的边境冲突中研究它的教训,越南特种部队对中国军队导致实质上的麻烦。

    在1988年,PLA在广州军区以军区侦察部队为基础组成了它的第一个“特种任务,快速反应”SOF,从纯粹的侦察任务到其它的现代化特种战斗要素扩展。单位给予新式武器和装备,而且接受了特种训练,战场生存、全副装备游泳、跳伞和直升飞机载运攻击等。不久,所有的其他侦察部队也被转换成SOF,并且侦察单位有组织的作战集合开始在特种战斗方面接受训练。

    任务

    PLA SOF和世界上其他类似SOF的一样,从事包括特种侦察(SR)、直接攻击(DA)、情报行动、非传统战斗(UW)任务和在一些反恐怖(CT)情形中。

    特种侦察:PLA的历史非常强调侦察在战术、战场和全民层次。侦察行动在昼或夜时常增强优先到一种攻击性。侦察组被派遣到每个前线部分为了要发现行进路径、敌人位置(特别地敌人的总部)和敌人部署的任何的弱点。侦察行动可能包括化装去诱导敌人透露他们的位置;突袭测试敌人兵力的反应和当敌人削弱时进行有限的攻击。

    集团军和它的师、旅和团全部拥有自己建制的特种侦察部队,装备使用轻型车辆、摩托车和全地形车辆。这些部队可能在主体部队之前8~20公里行动或在它的侧翼搜集关于敌人行动的情报。一些侦察部队也操作无人机(UAV)协助它的侦察任务。PLA已经发展多种战术无人机(UAV),一些从车辆安装的发射装置或手持式发射。

    命令行动(Direction Action):直接战斗任务是由SOF进行的“短-期间打击和其它的小规模攻击性行动”。PLA SOF实击袭击重要地点、营救战俘和捕获有价值的敌方人员。这些行动目标可能包括敌人指挥站、飞机场、海港、桥梁、大模毁灭性武器、例如防空位置等关键武器系统和例如通信和动力网络等民用目标。摧毁或破坏这些目标,使敌人动员和指挥它的军队能力被严重地降低。

    情报行动:PLA SOF工作接近PLA的情报部门,去得到重要的国家和战区层次的情报,关于敌军、天气和在敌方战线后地形,举例来说,敌人指挥站位置、储备、大模毁灭性武器、关键武器系统、后勤位置、可能的河流穿越位置、街道行进路线和用于精确制导武器系统的瞄准数据。

    反恐:由于中国广阔区域,PLA SOF在反恐任务积极参与,如营救人质。这时常与人民武装警察(PAP)和地区警力进行合作。在2002年10月,一个PLA SOF部队参加中国-塔吉克联合反恐演习。一个最近中国国家媒体报道也证实在被更新的PLA学说中,反恐已经被增加到SOF基本的训练科目。


城市战斗训练的PLA SOF士兵。援救的反恐军事行动,像是人质援救,已经在PLA SOF学说中变得逐渐重要。(PLA SOF soldiers in urban warfare training. Counter-terrorism operation such as hostage rescuing has become increasingly important in the PLA SOF doctrines due to the growing separatist activities in the remote regions of China.)

    装备

    PLA SOF与普通部队比较通常配备更好的装备。个人武器包括标准的95式突击步枪、88式狙击步枪、64/79式机枪、92式手枪和火箭推进枪榴弹(RPG),一些武器为密秘操作配备有消声器。他们也被装备防弹衣、单人便携式战术无线电、夜-视护目镜(NVGs)、低亮度-级别电视(LLLTV)系统、手持式激光测距仪和全球定位系统/GLONASS定位系统等。附加地,这些部队熟练使用一些国外-制造的个别的和小型武器。


PLA SOF被时常看到使用夜-视护目镜(NVGs),低亮度-级别电视(LLLTV),和其它先进光学系统用于战场侦察任务。(The PLA SOF are frequently seen using night-vision goggles (NVGs), low-light-level television (LLLTV), and other advanced optical systems for the battlefield reconnaissance role.)


典型的PLA的特种侦察组,装备突击步枪和无声冲锋枪、火箭推进枪榴弹(RPG)、便携式无线电和光学/ 夜视侦察装备。(A typical PLA special reconnaissance team equipped with assault rifle, submachine gun with silencer, rocket propelled grenade (RPG), manpack radio, and optical/night vision reconnaissance equipment.)


PLA SOF与普通部队比较通常配备更好的装备。(The PLA SOF are generally better equipped compared to ordinary ground forces units.)

    PLA SOF依靠陆军航空兵直升飞机和空军运输机提供短- 和远程的空中运输。SOF也配置快速攻击车辆(FAV)全地形车辆(ATV)。一些SOF部队据知已经接受使用动力降落伞(PPC)的训练去在超低高度渗透敌人的防卫。


PLA SOF依靠陆军航空兵直升飞机和空军运输机提供空中机动部队能力。PLA SOF部队在他们被部署的军事区域靠近直升飞机训练。(The PLA SOF rely on Army Aviation Corps helicopters and Air Force transport aircraft to provide airmobile capability. PLA SOF units train closely with helicopter units in the military regions in which they are deployed.)

    编制

    当提及它的SOF的时候,PLA使用短语“特种部队大队(Dadui)”或“特种侦察(Dadui)”。术语“大队(DaDui)”大约表示一个军事单位一个小型团规模,概略地对等美国陆军特种部队团。这些单位大概可能有 1,000名人员,分开大约三个营。在SOF大队内每个营的数量和组的规模,由于他们执行任务而变化。组的规模范围从两个人单位用于特种侦察(SR)到增强连用于直接攻击(DA)任务。

    在PLA现有的18个集团军(GA)内,每个有一个特种侦察团,在规模方面与一个陆军营同等。每个陆军师有一个特种侦察连拥有大约120人。每个步兵团有一个特种侦察排(30~40人),这些单位,尽管额外使用“特种部队”名称,但仅仅具有有限的特种战斗能力,主要地特种侦察(SR)和直接攻击(DA)。他们的装备和训练也次于那些MR SOF部队。

    训练


PLA SOF,像他们的世界上类似的,强调他们士兵出众的身体素质和精通小型武器。(The PLA SOF, like their counterparts around the world, emphasise superior physical fitness and small-arms proficiency in their soldiers.)


成都军区SOF在接近寓所战斗(CQB)训练。(Chengdu Military Region SOF in close quarter combat (CQB) training.)


PLA的SOF士兵“蓝盔军队”(敌人-模拟单位)在北京军区中部署。在北京附近的陆军训练中心,他们担任敌人突击队对抗其他PLA单位。单位据说以国外SOF单位的手法和组织为基础。(SOF soldiers of the PLA “Blue Army” (enemy-simulation unit) stationed in Beijing Military Region. They act as “enemy commandoes” against other PLA units in the combat exercise regularly held in the Army training centre near Beijing. The unit is said to be based on the tactics and organisations of foreign SOF units.)

    PLA SOF,像他们世界上类似的,强调他们的士兵出众的身体素质和精通小型武器。PLA的所有SOF成员在格斗和战场生存技能上训练。依靠他们的特定角色,一些单位可能在一个或更多下列范围深入训练:城市作战、水陆两栖操作、破坏、通信、计算机或外国语言。

    附原文供对照参考:

ARMY SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES

The PLA ground forces have seven special operations forces (SOF) groups (“DaDui”), which are the size of Army regiment with 1,000 men each. There is one SOF group for each of the seven military regions (MR) and they are under the direct command of the MR headquarters. Group armies (GA), field divisions, and regiments also have their own organic special reconnaissance units that have limited special warfare capabilities. The army SOF is an important part of the PLA’s rapid reaction forces ready to fight a limited regional war under high-tech conditions.

HISTORY

Although the PLA did not have dedicated SOF until the late 1980s, specially trained reconnaissance units were widely used to carry out some special operations roles such raiding, ambushing, intelligence collecting, kidnapping of enemy personnel, etc. These reconnaissance units saw some impressive actions in the 1979 Sino-Vietnamese conflict and the subsequent border conflicts with Vietnam in the 1980s. However, these units did not differ much to ordinary PLA ground forces units in terms of equipment and organisational structure, and were no match to modern foreign SOF in their capabilities.

The PLA first became interested in modern special warfare in the mid-1980s when it was shifting from the “People’s War” to “fighting a local war under hi-tech conditions”. The PLA planners believed that the next war would be a short, fast-pace conflict on the periphery rather than a total war in the Chinese territory, and conventional infantry-oriented ground forces in their mass numbers could no longer meet the requirements. Additionally, the PLA also learned its lesson from the 1979 and 1980s border conflicts with Vietnam, where Vietnamese special forces caused substantial trouble to the Chinese forces.

In 1988, the PLA formed its first “special mission, rapid reaction” SOF in Guangzhou MR. The unit was established on the basis of the military region reconnaissance group by expanding its role from pure reconnaissance mission to other modern special warfare elements. The unit was given new weapons and equipment, and received special training in field surviving, swimming with full gear, parachute jumping, helicopterborne assault, etc. Not before long, all other MR reconnaissance groups were also transformed into SOF, and the reconnaissance units organic to combat troops began to receive training in special warfare too.

ROLES

Like their counterparts around the world, the PLA SOF undertake roles including Special Reconnaissance (SR), Direct Action (DA), intelligence activities, Unconventional Warfare (UW), and in some cases Counter-Terrorism (CT).

Special Reconnaissance: Historically the PLA put great emphasis on reconnaissance at tactical, theatre, and national level. Reconnaissance activities by day or night are often increased prior to an offensive. Reconnaissance teams are dispatched to every part of the front in order to discover avenues of approach, enemy positions (particularly enemy headquarters), and any weak points in the enemy’s deployment. Reconnaissance activities may include feints to induce the enemy to disclose his position; raids in strength to test enemy reactions; and limited attacks when the enemy’s strength is undermined.

The group armies, and its divisions, brigades and regiments all have their own organic special reconnaissance units equipped with lightweight vehicles, motorbikes, and all-terrain vehicles. These units may operate from 8~20km ahead of the unit’s main body, or at its flank to gather information on enemy activities. Some reconnaissance units also operate unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to assist its reconnaissance missions. The PLA has developed a range of tactical UAV, some of which can be launched from vehicle-mounted launchers or handheld.

Direction Action: The direct action missions are "short-duration strikes and other small-scale offensive activities" conducted by the SOF. The PLA SOF practice raids on vital positions, rescuing prisoners, and capturing valuable enemy personnel. Targets for these activities are likely to include enemy command posts, airfields, seaports, bridges, weapons of mass destruction, and key weapons systems such as air-defence sites, as well as certain civilian targets such as communications and power networks. By destroying or sabotaging these targets, the enemy’s ability to mobilise and command its troops is significantly reduced.

Intelligence Activities: The PLA SOF work closely with the PLA’s intelligence departments to gain information of national or theatre-level significance about the enemy, weather, and terrain behind enemy lines, for example, the location of enemy command posts, reserves, weapons of mass destruction, key weapons systems, logistic sites, possible river-crossing sites, avenues of approach, and targeting data for precision-guided weapon systems.

Counter-Terrorism: As a result of the growing separatist activities in China’s remote regions such as Xijiang and Tibet, the PLA SOF became increasingly involved in the counter-terrorism role such as hostage rescuing. This is often conducted in co-operation with the People’s Armed Police (PAP) and local police forces. In October 2002, a PLA SOF unit took part in the joint China-Tajikistan counter-terrorism exercise. A recent report by the Chinese state media also confirmed that counter-terrorism had been added to the basic SOF training subjects under the renewed PLA doctrines.

EQUIPMENT

The PLA SOF are generally better equipped compared to ordinary ground forces units. Individual weapons include the standard Type 95 assault rifle, Type 88 sniper rifle, Type 64/79 submachine gun, Type 92 pistol and rocket propelled grenade (RPG). Some of these weapons are fitted with silencers for secretive operations. They are also equipped with body armour, manpack tactical radio, night-vision goggles (NVGs), low-light-level television (LLLTV) systems, handheld laser rangefinder and GPS/GLONASS positioning system, etc. Additionally, these forces are familiar with some foreign-made individual and small weapons.

The PLA SOF rely on the army aviation helicopters and air force transports to provide short- and long-range air transportations. The SOF also deploy fast attack vehicles (FAV) and all terrain vehicles (ATV) for land transportation. Some SOF units are known to have received training on the use of powered parachutes (PPC) to penetrate enemy defence at ultra-low altitude.

ORGANISATIONS

The PLA uses the phrases "Special Forces group (Dadui)" or "Special Reconnaissance Group (Dadui)" when referring to its SOF. The term "DaDui" denotes a military unit approximately the size of a small regiment, roughly equivalent to a U.S. Army Special Forces Group. These units are likely to have around 1,000 personnel assigned to them, divided among approximately three battalions. The number of SOF teams within each battalion, as well as the size of the teams, vary because of the missions they perform. The teams range in size from two-man units used for SR to reinforced companies used in DA missions.

Within each of the PLA’s 18 group armies (GA) there is a special reconnaissance group, which is equivalent to an Army battalion in size. Each Army division has a special reconnaissance company with around 120 men. Each infantry regiment has a special reconnaissance platoon (30~40 men). These units, although being added with “special force” title, have only limited special warfare capabilities, mainly SR and DA. Their equipment and training are also inferior to those MR SOF groups.

TRAINING

The PLA SOF, like their counterparts around the world, emphasise superior physical fitness and small-arms proficiency in their soldiers. All SOF members in the PLA are trained in martial arts and field surviving skills. Depending their specific roles, some units are likely to have specialised training in one or more of the following areas: urban warfare, amphibious operations, demolitions, communications, computers, or foreign languages.

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