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中国DF-5(CSS-4)洲际弹道导弹
DF-5 (CSS-4) INTERCONTINENTAL BALLISTIC MISSILE
作者:环球展望 来源:本站原创 更新时间:2005-12-8 【字体:


DF-5是中国第一种操作的ICBM
The DF-5 is China's first operational ICBM

    中国“东风”(Dong Feng)-5(DF-5,北约代号:CSS-4)是中国第一种洲际弹道导弹(ICBM)。由中国运载火箭研究院(CALT,也即是第一航空宇宙学院)发展,它是一种发射井-基,二级、液体推进剂弹道导弹。导弹携带一枚单一的3百万吨核弹头,有效射程12,000公里。DF-5A是增加射程改进型。PLA目前大约部署这种型号导弹约24~36枚。

    计划

    在DF-4(CSS-3)远程弹道导弹成功之后,1964年中国开始发展能够到达美国的第一种真正的洲际弹道导弹(ICBM)。相同的设计稍后也用于发展中国长征(Chang Zheng)系列空间运载火箭而且变成中国空间计划的基础。

    在整个1970年,中国空间活动减慢准备进行DF-5 ICBM实验发射测试。然而在1970年自始至终,DF-5结果由于中国国内原因没有进行。在慢速开始之后,剧烈发展在1970年后期开始。DF-5的第一次试射1971年9月在酒泉(Shuang Cheng Zi)进行。在1979年进行了五次实弹测试(1月7日、7月15日、8月21日、9月4日和可能另外一次在10月)。最后测试发射在1980年2月。


DF-5 ICBM在1984年庆祝中华人民共和国成立第35周年阅兵式上展示
The DF-5 ICBM was demonstrated in the 1984 military parade to celebrate the 35th anniversary of the People's Republic of China

    到1980时中国已经克服国内问题所引起的核发展减速而且它的战略武器计划有一些惊人成就。在1980年3月开始准备,在酒泉进行全程测试练习,辅助的舰艇在黄海练习。最后,在5月18日和21日,两枚远程发射成功进入太平洋,被PLA海军特遣部队顺利回收。第一枚导弹从发射位置到一个限制区域,范围在吉柏特岛、所罗门群岛、斐济和新赫布里底群岛,大约飞行9,500公里, 在格林威治时间02:30落下,第二枚发射细节未知。

    操作状态

    DF-5在1981年进入了操作服役, 而且在中国中部建造的核防护设施中部署。最初DF-5采用一种相似的风格被部署,如DF-4远程弹道导弹。导弹被储存在高山下面的隧道一个水平位置中,而且移到隧道口外面立刻发射。导弹加注燃料操作正常需要二个小时。


在发射台上的DF-5 ICBM
The DF-5 ICBM on the launch pad


改进型DF-5A从硬化发射井中发射
The improved DF-5 is launched from hardened silo

    稍后生产型DF-5和改良型DF-5A或许在发射井部署并且保持在就绪-到-发射状态。为了要提高这些导弹的生存性,PLA已经大量建造很多诱骗发射井,包括浅挖掘井(不可部署导弹)和准备性的类似的操作发射井(可部署导弹)。复杂的工程技术和引进计算机发射控制系统已经非常减少这些导弹的发射准备时间。

    真正的运行中的导弹数目保持高度机密,观察者判断变化较大,范围从小于10枚到超过30枚。依照一些报道,PLA第二火炮部队的DF-5部队,由三个旅组成,人数约2000人。

    第一个,第803旅,在1984年10月建立,也就是中华人民共和国成立第35周年。目前,这个旅位于怀化(Huaihua)附近,在湖南(Hunan)省的深山里,大约距广州750公里西北方。第803旅被考虑是服役的一个极好的典型,在练习中从没有丢失任何目标。这个部队在1990年中期,完全地装备改进型DF-5A ICBM和相关设备。

    第二个,第804旅,在1980年结束的时候建立。它位于河南省西部的太行山内, 离洛阳(Luoyang)市不很远(在北京西南大约700公里)。早在1995年,中国的媒体报道用于中国战略导弹的“长城计划”,最后在10年之后完成,在河北省和山西省之间的太行山内。依照新闻报道,“好几万”军队工程人员花费10年开挖隧道。 依照一些报道,这些设施允许DF-4和DF-5导弹能够被储存并且机动穿越地下隧道增加他们的生存性。第804旅考虑它的位置有可能在这些设施内部署。

    第三个,即是第818旅,在1996年在湖南省建立。第818旅的组建据称已经在1999年完成.

    每个旅大约操作8~12枚导弹。2000年以前,所有的三个旅已经被装备改进型DF-5A ICBM。

    弹头

    DF-5携带一枚单一的3百万吨核弹头。多目标分导重返大气层运载装置(MIRV)能力在注意中,DF-5被发展如同孪生商业型CZ-2C商业火箭一样,CZ-2C有能力发射一次集中负载四颗卫星。虽然DF-5用于MIRV能力能够被修改,但是据知没有这样做。这很有可能一个政策决定,不去颠覆战略力量天平。但是由于美国急切部署TMD/NMD,DF-5的MIRV转换不太可能。在ICBM,必须取决于新一代之上,像是DF-31。


  DF-5 ICBM的第二级
The second stage of the DF-5 ICBM

    DF-5安装使用4台单极发动机用于操纵和在脱离主发动机后进一步持续推进190秒,启动再返回载体在大气层上瞄准目标距离控制。DF-5进一步发展是DF-5A,具有超过13,000公里的增大射程和一个改进惯性制导系统。

    推进剂

    DF-5的第一个级采用一台YF-6火箭发动机,由四台75吨推力YF-20钱伯斯发动机(采用摇摆喷嘴)所组成,燃烧 N2O4/UDMH推进剂。第二级采用一台YF-24火箭发动机由一台75吨推力YF-22发动机(采用固定喷嘴)和四台4.8吨推力的YF-23F发动机所组成,燃烧N2O4/UDMH推进剂。导弹有效射程12,000公里并且递送3,000公斤的一个负载,改进的DF-5A有效射程13,000公里。早期型DF-5在发射之前必须耗费2个小时加注燃料,但是这可能已经在改进型DF-5A上被减少。

    规格

    组态: 二级液体推进剂
    长度: 33 m
    直径: 3.4 m
    发射重量: 183,000 kg
    推进剂: 液体燃料(非对称二甲基胼(Dimethylhydrazine)/氮四氧化物(Nitrogen Tetroxide)混合[UDMH/N2H4])
    制导: 惯性采用弹载计算机
    射程: 12,000 公里(DF-5);>13,000 公里(DF-5 A)
    部署: 发射井和发射台
    再返回运载工具质量: ~3,000 kg
    弹头: 单一 3,000~5,000 kT
    圆概率误差(CEP): ~1,000 m
    发射准备时间: 120 分钟,或45~60 分钟(在发射井中)

    附原文供对照参考:

DF-5 (CSS-4) INTERCONTINENTAL BALLISTIC MISSILE

The Dong Feng-5 (DF-5, NATO codename: CSS-4) is China’s first intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). Developed by China Academy of Launch Vehicle (CALT, also known as 1st Aerospace Academy), it is a silo-based, two-stage, liquid propellant ballistic missile. The missile carries a single 3 megatons nuclear warhead and has an effective range of 12,000km. The DF-5A is the improved variant with an extended range. The PLA currently deploys approximately 24~36 of this missile deployed in central China.

PROGRAMME

Following the success of the DF-4 (CSS-3) long-range ballistic missile, in 1964 China began to develop its first true ICBM capable of reaching the United States. The same design was also later used to develop China’s Chang Zheng (Long March) family space launch vehicle and became the foundation of the Chinese space programme.

In the whole 1970s, the Chinese space activities were slowed down to prepare for the experimental fire tests of the DF-5 ICBM. However throughout the 1970s, the DF-5 became, amongst a lot of other defence projects, a casualty of the political chaos spawned from the Cultural Revolution. The first test launch of the DF-5 took place in September 1971 at Jiuquan (Shuang Cheng Zi). After the slow start, intense development began in the late 1970s with five extensive live tests in 1979 alone (7 January, 15 July, 21 August, 4 September, and possibly another one in October). The final test shot was fired in February 1980.

By 1980 China had overcome the slowdown in nuclear development caused by the Cultural Revolution and had some spectacular successes in its strategic weapons programme. Preparation for full-range tests base exercises at the Shuang Cheng Zi site and ship exercises in the Yellow Sea began in March 1980. Finally, on 18 and 21 May, two long-range shots were made into the Pacific Ocean, where it was recovered by a PLA naval task force. The first missile travelled approximately 9,500 km from the launch site to an area bounded by the Gilbert Islands, the Solomons, Fiji, and the New Hebrides, with splash-down occurring at 02:30 Greenwich mean time, while details of the second fire remain unknown.

OPERATIONAL STATUS

The DF-5 entered operational service in 1981, and were deployed in hardened constructions in central China. Initially the DF-5 was deployed in a similar style as the DF-4 long-range ballistic missile. The missile was stored in a horizontal position in tunnels under high mountains, and are launched immediately outside the mouth of the tunnel. The fuelling operation of the missile normally requires two hours.

Later production variants of the DF-5 and improved DF-5A are probably deployed in silos and maintained in a ready-to-fire status. In order to enhance the survivability of these missiles, the PLA has constructed a large number of decoy silos which consist of shallow holes excavations with headworks that resemble operational silos. Sophisticated engineering and the introduction of the computerised launch control systems have greatly decreased the launch preparation time of these missiles.

The exact number of the missile in service remains highly classified, and observer estimations vary significantly, ranging from less than 10 to over 30. According to some reports, by 2000 the DF-5 forces of the PLA Second Artillery Corps consisted of three brigades.

The first, the 803rd brigade, was established in October 1984, the 35th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China (PRC). Presently, this brigade is located near Huaihua, within the deep mountains of Hunan province, around 750km north-west of Guangzhou. The 803rd is considered an excellent model of the service, never missing its targets in any exercise. This brigade was equipped entirely with improved DF-5A ICBMs and related equipment by the mid-1990s.

The second brigade is the 804th brigade and was organised at the end of the 1980s. It is located inside a mountain range in the western part of Henan province, not far from Luoyang City (around 700km southwest of Beijing). Early 1995, China's media reported that the “Great Wall Project ” for China's strategic missile force was finally completed after ten years of construction in the Tai-Hang Mountain Range between Hebei and Shanxi provinces. According to the news reports, "tens of thousands" of Army engineers spent over 10 years there digging tunnels. According to some reports, this facility enables DF-4 and DF-5 missiles to be stored and mobilised through underground tunnels to increase their survivability. The 804th brigade is most likely to be associated to this facility considering its location.

The third unit, known as the 818th brigade, was established in 1996 and is subordinated to Hunan province, like the 803rd. Formation of the 818th was said to have completed in 1999.

Each brigade operates about 8~12 missiles. By the year 2000, all three brigades had been equipped with improved DF-5A ICBMs.

WARHEAD

The DF-5 carries a single 3 megatons nuclear warhead. Multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicle (MIRV) warhead capability was in mind when the DF-5 was developed as with the CZ-2C commercial rocket, a twin of the DF-5 that has the ability to launch four satellites in a single load. Although the DF-5 can be modified for MIRV capability, none is known be have done so. This is very likely a policy decision not to upset the strategic balance of power. But even with the deployment of US TMD/NMD imminent, MIRV conversion of the DF-5 seems unlikely. Such necessity rests upon the new generation of ICBMs such as DF-31.

The DF-5 is equipped with four veneer rocket motors for steering and sustaining propulsion for a further 190 seconds after the shutting of the main motor, and enabling a wide aiming arc for the re-entry vehicles in the upper atmosphere. A further development of the DF-5 is the DF-5A, with a range augmentation to over 13,000 km and an improved inertial guidance system.

PROPELLANT

The first stage of the DF-5 utilises a YF-6 rocket motor, which consists of four 75-ton thrust YF-20 chambers motors (with swinging nozzles) burning N2O4/UDMH. The second stage utilises a YF-24 rocket motor consisting of one 75-ton thrust YF-22 motor (with fixed nozzles) and a YF-23F swivelling venire motor with four 4.8-ton thrust chambers burning N2O4/UDMH. The missile has an effective range of 12,000km and delivers a payload of 3,000kg. The improved DF-5 has an effective range of 13,000km.

Early variant of the DF-5 required up to two hours in fuelling time prior to launch, but this might have been reduced on the improved DF-5A.

SPECIFICATIONS

Configuration: Two stage liquid
Length: 33m
Diameter: 3.4m
Launch Weight: 183,000kg
Propellant: Liquid fuel (Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine/Nitrogen Tetroxide mix [UDMH/N2H4])
Guidance: Inertial with onboard computer
Range: 12,000km (DF-5); >13,000km (DF-5A)
Deployment: Silo and launch pad
Re-entry Vehicle Mass: ~3,000kg
Warhead: Single 3,000~5,000kT
CEP: ~1,000m
Launch Preparation Time: 120 min (mobile), or 45~60 min (in silo)

    补充资料:《烈焰东风:中国弹道导弹力量》摘录

  ☆ 中国唯一真正的洲际导弹

  中国的CSS-4/东风-5/东风-5A是其唯一真正意义上的洲际导弹(ICBM)。它能够将威力非常强大的核弹头运载到俄罗斯、欧洲或美国大陆的任何地区。东风-5的研制工作始于1965年,其设计射程为12000公里,但该型导弹直到1980年才进行了第一次全程飞行试验,并在1981年部署。作为东风-5改进型的东风-5A于1986年部署,这是一种两级火箭推进的导弹,采用可储存式液氢燃料和计算机控制的陀螺仪惯性制导系统,射程约为13000公里。该型导弹部署在经过加固的地下发射井和洞库内。DF-5/DF-5A的确切部署数量尚不得而知,但绝大部分专家相信目前的数量在7到20枚之间。这些部署的导弹未加注燃料和安装核弹头,由此将使其准备时间增加30-60分钟。东风-5/东风-5A的民用型号为长征-2C(CZ-2C)。中国宇航部门自1975年以来经常使用这种运载火箭(发射人造卫星),启用时间较ICBM型早5年。根据长征-2C的年产量为5-6枚的报道判断,中国可能还贮备有未部署的DF-5/东风-5A。

    《中国的核力量》摘录

  具有重大意义的是DF-5(CSS-4)ICBM(战略弹道导弹-ncm)。这种导弹的第一试验是在1971年的9月份,其射程可达10,000~12,000公里,可打击到美国西部。1983年中国人决定改良这个系统以提高其射击精度和提升射程。作为结果,诞生了射程为13,000多公里的DF-5A导弹。DF-5A是一种液体燃料导弹。不幸地,似乎有一种共识,即中国的液体燃料ICBM在点火前需要有2个小时的时间来加注燃料。这种假设并非是绝对正确的。从中国DF-5A ICBM被置于发射井和其它发射筒内来看,其可能被改进为机动发射,当然这并不是说该系统可以不必有开火前漫长的准备。这只说明那些DF-5A可以平置或置于特定场所贮藏,极有可能必须在发射前才加注。

  中国的长征2C火箭结构(用于航天发射)用的火箭推进系统与DF-5A是一样的。这种系统使用带有贮藏液体燃料的助推器,其燃料为NDMH/N2O4。这种燃料与美国大型运载火箭大力神所使用的燃料类似。自从20年前起,NDMH/N2O4就做为一种可以贮存于铝或不锈钢容器内的燃料,避免了火箭结构受到腐蚀而损坏。这并不是中国无法使其筒(发射井-ncm)装导弹处于灵敏反应状态,以便一经警报后就可立即发射的原因。中国人面临的唯一难题是这种燃料的冰点为华氏30度(已装配的导弹的维护温度大约要在35~40度),虽导弹体的焊接部份能很好地适应但其内剧毒的四氧化氮则难以容纳,容易从不合格焊缝处形成的小孔泄漏。

    《中国核武器的战略思想:要有但不要多》摘录

    洲际弹道导弹:

中国大约有120枚四种型号的洲际弹道导弹:DF-3ADF-4DF-5ADF-21A。每枚导弹携带一颗弹头。

另外,DF-3A中程洲际弹道导弹正在逐步退役。

DF-4是山洞储藏,在发射架上发射的液体燃料洲际弹道导弹。

DF-5A是液体洲际弹道导弹。五角大楼估计DF-5A不超过25枚。DF-5DF-5A的升级到2005年完成。

DF-21A是两级固体中程洲际弹道导弹,将代替DF-3A

近年来中国发展了路基C31C31是机动固体燃料三级小型弹头的洲际弹道导弹(DF-31),射程8000公里,误差在300-600米。路基DF-31可以覆盖阿拉斯加和夏威夷。2000年中国进行了三次DF-31试验,同时进行的还有假弹头试验。预计在2004年到2005年服役。

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