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中国DF-31洲际弹道导弹
DF-31 INTERCONTINENTAL BALLISTIC MISSILE
作者:环球展望网编译 来源:今日中国防务 更新时间:2005-11-21 【字体:


最先进的中国弹道导弹现在服役中,DF-31代替在1970年发展的DF-4。1999年国庆节阅兵式导弹第一次登场。
The most advanced Chinese ballistic missile currently in service, the DF-31 replaced the DF-4 originally introduced in the 1970s. The missile first debut in the 1999 National day military parade.

    “东风”(DongFeng)-31(DF-31,北约代号:CSS-9)是一种洲际、道路机动和固体推进剂弹道导弹,由中国火箭发动机技术研究院发展(ARMT,也即是第4航空宇宙学院)。导弹的发展如同JL-2潜射弹道导弹(SLBM)的一种陆基型。DF-31是目前服役中的最先进的弹道导弹,特点是高机动性和因此较好的生存能力,是中国最新一代洲际弹道导弹(ICBM)。

    计划

    中国开始在1980年中期发展第二代ICBM,用于替代陈旧的DF-4(CSS-3)。位于中国内蒙古呼和浩特的第4航空宇宙研究院(现在的ARMT),被任命为主承包商,连同PLA 第二炮兵和其他科学研究组织的研究所也积极参与。DF-31设计以JL-2(CSS-NX-10)SLBM为基础。从最初的潜射导弹可以容易地修改陆基可机动发射系统。

    DF-31的发展据传闻经历许多技术上的困难,包括大型固体燃料发动机用于8,000公里射程的DF-31。结果第一次试射在1990年早期内预定但被多次延期。准备在1998 年第二季度进行DF-31第一次发射测试。在1999年8月2日,中国的国家新闻媒体报道中国已经成功地发射一枚新型ICBM,从位于陕西五寨(Wuzhai)的PLA第二炮兵导弹测试中心发射,弹着点在新疆罗布泊(Lop Nor)某处地点。

    在1999年10月1日,北京举行庆祝中华人民共和国国庆第50周年阅兵式上,中国第一次对公众展示了DF-31 ICBM。然而,导弹隐藏在发射箱内装载在一辆竖立式运输发射架(TEL)车上,导弹它本身是看不到的。DF-31的操作部署根据传闻从2002/03年开始,到现在为止12枚导弹在服役中。中国也发展一种改进型DF-31A,增程到10,000公里,改良精度和多弹头分导再入载体(MIRV)能力。


DF-31对它的对手造成严重的挑战。导弹具有对抗硬目标如导弹发射井和软目标如城市中心两者的能力。固体推进剂的使用已经重要地减少发射准备时间。道路可机动发射装置把导弹的生存性提高到有能力应对敌人第一波打击。
The DF-31 poses a serious challenge to its rival. The missile has the capability against both hardened missile silos and civilian population centres. The use of the solid propellant has significantly reduced the launch preparation time. The road mobile launcher increases the missile’s survivability to the enemy’s first strike.

    DF-31和它衍生型的表现中国弹道导弹在生存性和性能方面的重要进步。导弹具有对抗导弹发射井等硬目标和城市中心等软目标。据称发射井式DF-31精度达到100米圆概率误差(CEP),如果装备使用一枚高当量MIRV弹头,足够摧毁硬化的导弹发射井。道路-可机动改型可能精度较低,但是这可能被增加卫星导航和定位能力,像是美国的全球定位系统(GPS)或俄罗斯的全球轨道导航卫星系统(GLONASS)到发射平台。

    导弹

    DF-31是一种三级、固体推进剂洲际弹道导弹。基本型DF-31射程8,000公里并且递出在1,050公斤和1,750公斤之间的一个负载。这一个负载可能被装备一枚单一的 1,000kT当量核弹头。

    升级的DF-31A射程至少10,000公里。导弹据说能够递送3~5个多弹头分导再入载体(MIRV),每个具有20、90或150kT当量或一枚单一的1,000kT当量弹头。它也可能装备穿透工具和假目标去混乱敌人的导弹警告和防卫系统。

    导弹长度13.0米和直径2.25米,发射重量42,000公斤。它使用一套装备星形修正系统的惯性制导系统。导弹的精度期望具有至少300米圆概率误差(CEP),虽然一些报道称发射井和竖立式运输发射架(TEL)-基分别具有100米和150米的圆概率误差(CEP)。固体推进剂的使用提供给导弹一个较长的有效寿命和与液体燃料ICBM 相对比较短的发射时间。

    发射平台

    DF-31能够从导弹发射井或竖立式运输发射架(TEL)车辆发射。DF-31的早期型号被装载在一辆由汉阳特种汽车制造厂生产的16轮汉阳(Hanyang)HY473竖立式运输发射架(TEL)车辆,由一辆牵引车和一辆半拖车所组成。DF-31在1999年国庆节阅兵式中展示,装载在一辆改进的Hanyang HY4301竖立式运输发射架(TEL)车辆上。这些竖立式运输发射架(TEL)车辆提供有限的道路机动能力,但是没有越野行进能力。


DF-31的早期型装载在一辆16轮的Hanyang HY473竖立式运输发射架(TEL)车辆,由一辆牵引车和一辆半拖车所组成。DF-31在1999年国庆节阅兵式中展示,装载在一辆改进的Hanyang HY4301竖立式运输发射架(TEL)车辆上。这些竖立式运输发射架(TEL)车辆提供有限的道路机动能力,但是没有越野行进能力。
Early variant of the DF-31 was carried on a 16-wheel Hanyang HY473 TEL consisting of a tractor and a semi-trailer. The DF-31 displayed in the 1999 National Day military parade was carried on an improved Hanyang HY4301 TEL. These TEL vehicles provide the missile with limited road mobile capability, but no off-road travelling capability.

    国外信息部门已经提到一种白俄罗斯MAZ7916 12-轮机动导弹竖立式运输发射架(TEL)车辆出现在北京Nanyuan的DF-31制造厂。为前苏联SS-20 IRBM使用,MAZ7916竖立式运输发射架(TEL)车辆为DF-31提供重要地、较好的越野行进能力,胜于Hanyang已有的竖立式运输发射架(TEL)车辆。中国可能已经吸收MAZ技术,包括全-轮独立悬挂,比较高的离地间隙,驾驶员控制的中央轮胎-充气系统和大轮胎到它本国生产的重型越野车辆上,为DF-31发展一种完全越野可机动竖立式运输发射架(TEL)车辆。


到现在为止没有关于DF-31导弹的相片由于它的高敏感度。中国航空宇宙科学和工业公司(CASIC)在2001年显示KT-1固体燃料运载火箭。以DF-31设计为基础的运载火箭提供有关DF-31导弹外表的一些线索。
No photo of the DF-31 missile has been released so far due to its high sensitivity. China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation (CASIC) revealed the KT-1 solid-fuel space launch vehicle in 2001. The vehicle, which is based on the DF-31 design, provides some clue about the appearance of the DF-31 missile.

    已经有推测中国为DF-31正在发展一种铁路-基发射平台,但是这不能够确认。

    规格

    配置: 三级
    长度: 13 米
    直径: 2.25 米
    发射重量: 42,000 公斤
    推进剂: 固体燃料
    制导: 惯性+星形修正
    射程: 8,000 公里(DF-31);10,000 公里(DF-31A)
    部署: 发射井或道路可机动装置
    再入载体质量: 1,050~1,750 公斤
    弹头: 单一的1,000 kT,或达到三个20~150 kT多弹头分导再入载体(MIRV)
    圆概率误差(CEP): 100~300 米
    发射准备时间: ~15 分钟

    附原文供对照参考:

DF-31 INTERCONTINENTAL BALLISTIC MISSILE

The DongFeng-31 (DF-31, NATO codename: CSS-9) is an intercontinental-range, road-mobile, solid-propellant ballistic missile developed by Academy of Rocket Motor Technology (ARMT, also known as 4th Aerospace Academy). The missile was developed as a land-based version of the JL-2 submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM). The most advanced ballistic missile currently in service, the DF-31 features higher mobility and therefore better survivability compared to the last generation Chinese ICBM.

PROGRAMME

China began to develop the second generation ICBM as a successor to the obsolete DF-4 (CSS-3) in the mid-1980s. 4th Aerospace Academy (now ARMT) in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia was appointed as the main contractor, with the Research Institute of the PLA Second Artillery Corps and other scientific research organisations also involved. The DF-31 design was based on the JL-2 (CSS-NX-10) SLBM. The sea-launched origin of the missile made it easily adapted for land mobile launch systems.

The development of the DF-31 has reportedly experienced a number of technical difficulties, including the large solid-fuel motors for the 8,000km-range DF-31. As a result the first test launch scheduled in the early 1990s was repeatedly postponed. Preparation for the first DF-31 test began in the second half of 1998. On 2 August 1999, Chinese state news media reported that China has successfully launched a new ICBM from the PLA Second Artillery Corps’ missile test centre in Wuzhai, Shanxi, with impact point somewhere in Lop Nor (Xinjiang).

During the military parade held in Beijing to celebrate the People’s Republic of China (PRC)’s 50th anniversary on 1 October 1999, China revealed the DF-31 ICBM to the public for the first time. However, the missile itself could not be seen as it was concealed in the large canister carried on a transport-erection-launch (TEL) vehicle. The operational deployment of the DF-31 reportedly began in 2002/03, with 12 missiles in service so far. China also developed an improved model DF-31A with extended range of 10,000km, improved accuracy and multiple independently-targeted re-entry vehicle (MIRV) capability.

The DF-31 and its derivations represent significant improvement on the survivability and performance of the Chinese ballistic missile. The missile has the capability against both hardened missile silos and civilian population centres. The silo-based DF-31 has a reported accuracy of 100m CEP, which is sufficient to destroy hardened missile silos if equipped with one of the higher yield MIRV warheads. The road-mobile variant might have a lower accuracy but this can be improved by adding satellite navigation and positioning capability such as GPS or GLONASS to the launch platform.

MISSILE

The DF-31 is a three-stage, solid-propellant intercontinental ballistic missile. The basic variant DF-31 has a range of 8,000km and delivers a payload of between 1,050 and 1,750kg. This payload can be equipped with a single 1,000kT yield nuclear warhead.

The upgraded DF-31A has a range of at least 10,000km. The missile is said to be capable of deliver 3~5 MTRVs each with 20, 90 or 150kT yield as well as a single 1,000kT yield warhead. It is also possibly equipped with penetration aids and decoys to complicate enemy missile warning and defence.

The missile has a launch weight of 42,000kg with a length of 13.0m and a body diameter of 2.25m. it uses an inertial guidance system that is equipped with a stellar update system. The missile is expected to have an accuracy of at least 300m CEP, though it is reported that the silo and TEL-based version have 100 and 150m CEP respectively. The use of solid propellant gives the missile a longer service-life and shorter launch time compared to the liquid fuel ICBMs.

LAUNCH PLATFORM

The DF-31 can be launched from missile silos or transport-erection-launch (TEL) vehicles. Early variant of the DF-31 was carried on a 16-wheel Hanyang HY473 TEL consisting of a tractor and a semi-trailer. The DF-31 displayed in the 1999 National Day military parade was carried on an improved Hanyang HY4301 TEL. These TEL vehicles provide the missile with limited road mobile capability, but no off-road travelling capability.

Foreign intelligence has noted a Belarus MAZ7916 12-wheel mobile missile TEL at the DF-31 production facility in Nanyuan, Beijing. Used for former Soviet SS-20 IRBM, the MAZ7916 TEL has a significantly better cross-country travelling capability than the existing Hanyang TEL for DF-31. China may have incorporated some MAZ technologies including all-wheel independent suspension, higher ground clearance, driver-controlled central tire-inflation systems, and large tires on its own indigenous heavy-duty cross-country vehicles to develop a fully off-road mobile TEL for the DF-31.

There has been speculation that China was developing a railway-based launch platform for the DF-31 but this cannot be confirmed.

PROTECTION

To enable the vehicle airdrop from transport aircraft, the vehicle’s combat weight is strictly limited. The overall combat weight of the vehicle is said to be around 12 tonnes, which means that the crew and passengers only have very limited armour protection against small calibre weapons.

SPECIFICATIONS

Configuration: Three stage
Length: 13m
Diameter: 2.25m
Launch Weight: 42,000kg
Propellant: Solid fuel
Guidance: Inertial + stellar update
Range: 8,000km (DF-31); 10,000km (DF-31A)
Deployment: Silo or road mobile
Re-entry Vehicle Mass: 1,050~1,750kg
Warhead: One single 1,000kT, or up to three 20~150kT multiple independently targeted re-entry vehicle (MIRV)
CEP: 100~300m
Launch Preparation Time: ~15 min

    补充内容:《世界报》:中国核弹列车撩开神秘面纱

  最新一期《汉和防务评论》透露,中国第二炮兵开始发展机动部署型东风-31(DF-31)改良型洲际弹道导弹。火车部署型DF-31的研发工作已经完成,并且开始部署准备。为提高机动打击能力、生存能力,DF-31系列洲际弹道导弹已经发展出类似前苏联SS-24那样的铁路机动型,平时采用铁路机动,战时选择若干个预定发射点,实施核打击。由于铁路机动发射弹道导弹技术要求极高,核战争条件下生存力极强,目前得到证实的只有俄罗斯拥有此技术。因此这条报道如果属实的话,中国战略导弹部队的机动性和隐蔽能力都将大大增强,也使西方情报机构跟踪监视导弹发射的难度大为增加,中国的战略核打击能力在继核潜艇发射弹道导弹成功后实现了又一次质的飞跃。

    节选《惊人的中国下一代导弹技术》:另一位美国分析家说:“当然,很难知道这些获取的技术有多少已经应用于部署的武器系统之中,毕竟,在冷战时代,前苏联虽然从美国获取了大量的关键技术,但直到最后,还有许多没能整合到他们自己的系统中去。当然中国在这方面可能做的比较好,他们建立了一笔重要基金,用于支持高投入研究和实现'蛙跳'式技术突破的经费。我们已经开始看到的例子,如DF-31型洲际弹道导弹(ICBM)系统的多用途可重部署运载工具(MRV),DF-15型短程弹道导弹(SRBM)系统的GPS制导系统,DF-21型中程弹道导弹系统(MRBM)的雷达末端制导系统等等,都实现了技术的重大突破,这与中国科技人员的辛勤工作是分不开的,当然,不要忘记在他们的18枚(部署的)洲际弹道导弹中,有13枚对准美国。”

    由于中国已在DF-31洲际弹道导弹系统中使用了多用途可重部署运载工具(MRV),在衍生的JL-2(巨浪-2)型潜射导弹和射程更远的DF-41系统中也可能使用,因而为了增强导弹在战争中的生命力,中国最感兴趣的技术之一是部署诱饵发射装置,并如何发挥这些假运载工具的效果。当然,要模仿导弹发射的情形,骗过敌人的眼睛,需要对弹道导弹早期预警的丰富经验,对导弹发射全波谱的掌握。不同的资料显示,在1995年晚些时候和1996初,中国军事技术代表团出访俄罗斯和乌克兰时,对这方面的技术表示出浓厚的兴趣。

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